, The original mixture, as invented, used iron oxide in the form of mill scale. Preheating of thermite before ignition can easily be done accidentally, for example by pouring a new pile of thermite over a hot, recently ignited pile of thermite slag. , The thermites are characterized by almost complete absence of gas production during burning, high reaction temperature, and production of molten slag. Nano thermite does not expload, nano thermite is not an explosive. In principle, any reactive metal could be used instead of aluminium. Many have mentioned that there would have to have been a catalyst to create such a destructive scenario. , Copper(I) thermite has industrial uses in e.g., welding of thick copper conductors ("cadwelding"). When ignited by heat, thermite undergoes an exothermic reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction. It is sometimes called the Ames process.. The item could but it's not allowed because of … You can certainly use thermite to melt the steel components of armor, if a tank or other armored vehicle were stationary. Therefore, debunking the WTC thermite theory is not easy but is very straightforward.  For example, thermite can be used for the emergency destruction of cryptographic equipment when there is a danger that it might be captured by enemy troops. 750 gms of Fe2O3/Al 2.75/1 thermite, BaO2/Mg ribbon igniter. Much attention in the study was paid for design, the compacted degree of thermite risers and content of additional components, providing the necessary temperature and chemical composition of the melt, mainly steel. However, reducing these defects promotes a second form of defect: microporosity. The numerical analysis of thermite welding of … In the following example, elemental aluminium reduces the oxide of another metal, in this common example iron oxide, because aluminium forms stronger and more stable bonds with oxygen than iron: The products are aluminium oxide, elemental iron, and a large amount of heat. Usually a thick clay or firebrick type of material with a hole for the molten mass to flow into the lock. Magnetite also works. My experiments were by no means perfect, but they answered the questions I needed solved for the particular projects I had in mind. First, West misquotes Hooke (see quote below) by leaving out … The volume of the thermate necessary to burn through that thickness is apparently too great for effective transfer of heat to the steel. Thermite is not an explosive; instead it operates by exposing a very small area of metal to extremely high temperatures. Pressed thermite has higher melting power, i.e.  This can be a dangerous method, as the iron sparks, like the magnesium strips, burn at thousands of degrees and can ignite the thermite even though the sparkler itself is not in contact with it. The speed of that reaction and the ignition of the resulting hydrogen can easily account for the explosion verified. Well, maybe don't. The density of prepared thermite is often as low as 0.7 g/cm3.   This mechanism makes thermate more suitable than thermite for incendiary purposes and for emergency destruction of sensitive equipment (e.g., cryptographic devices), as thermite's effect is more localized. * * * Mick West @ 11:00: "So Hooke has demonstrated a second way microspheres can form that does not involve thermite or super high flame temperatures." How Easily Can Thermite Actually Melt Steel? Well, maybe don't. Chris Sarns: This statement is false on three counts.  The MythBusters program also tested the veracity of a video found on the Internet, whereby a quantity of thermite in a metal bucket was ignited while sitting atop several blocks of ice, causing a sudden explosion. Additionally, flammable metals with relatively low boiling points such as zinc (with a boiling point of 907 °C, which is about 1,370 °C below the temperature at which thermite burns) could potentially spray superheated boiling metal violently into the air if near a thermite reaction. Can thermite melt titanium? Or better yet, why not use a container made of any material with a ~2500 C melting point that would slowly melt the steel as well as most of the evidence of its existence? The impact from the plane hit also … The reaction rate can be also tuned with particle sizes; coarser particles burn slower than finer particles. , The most common composition is iron thermite. Goldschmidt, H. (13 March 1895) "Verfahren zur Herstellung von Metallen oder Metalloiden oder Legierungen derselben" (Process for the production of metals or metalloids or alloys of the same), Deutsche Reichs Patent no. 96317. Magnesium ignition remains popular among amateur thermite users, mainly because it can be easily obtained. They react to create huge amounts of extra heat, enough to melt the titanium and allow it to pool at the bottom of the container. Developed by a German chemist in 1893 to weld train tracks together, thermite burns at over 4,000°F (2204°C). An adaptation of the reaction, used to obtain pure uranium, was developed as part of the Manhattan Project at Ames Laboratory under the direction of Frank Spedding. This explanation claims that the explosion is due to the reaction of high temperature molten aluminium with water. Welding the conventional way could not join the rails as completely, but thermite steel is so hot it is able to fuse the sections completely. Author has 3.3K answers and 2.1M answer views. In foundry thermite mixture is use in steel castings risers, heated by means of exothermic reactions and in some other cases . Other oxides are occasionally used, such as MnO2 in manganese thermite, Cr2O3 in chromium thermite, quartz in silicon thermite, or copper(II) oxide in copper thermite, but only for specialized purposes. Can you die cast … Ceramics, such as clay ware, can hold the fire without melting. Fluoropolymers can be used in special formulations, Teflon with magnesium or aluminium being a relatively common example. It burns well while wet, and cannot be easily extinguished with water—though enough water to remove sufficient heat may stop the reaction. The oxidizer used is usually either iron(III) oxide or iron(II,III) oxide. Thermite vs. Steel Engine Block. lbs/inch - 230.4) 6" long, Steel Die Spring for pull. Often, strips of magnesium metal are used as fuses. This, in turn, results in relatively poor energy density (about 3 kJ/cm3), rapid burn times and spray of molten iron due to the expansion of trapped air. When these two substances mix, a spontaneous reaction begins, slowly increasing the temperature of the mixture until it produces flames. User:Edx01 #1 – You cannot do it with burning jet fuel #2 – You can do it with nano-thermite. A good example is the difference between manganese(IV) oxide and manganese(II) oxide, where the former produces too high temperature and the latter is barely able to sustain combustion; to achieve good results a mixture with proper ratio of both oxides should be used.. The energy content is 945.4 cal/g (3 956 J/g). If it's steel, it will melt. Thermite reactions have many uses. May 22, 2017 @ 9:57pm Originally posted by Insomniac: Originally posted by Fresh Prince: no, just no, and you just described a thermite charge last time i checked, thermite can't melt through the steel beams under the ceiling Because of balance. , A thermite reaction, when used to purify the ores of some metals, is called the thermite process, or aluminothermic reaction. Thermite reactions have many uses. Red iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3, commonly known as rust) is the most common iron oxide used in thermite. A much quicker solution is to do what Beyond the Press did and set a whole bunch of thermite out on a frozen lake, light it up, and see what happens. Despite the very low temperature of a dry ice thermite mixture, such a system is capable of being ignited with a flame. Other types of metals can be used, known as exotic thermites. Oxidizers include bismuth(III) oxide, boron(III) oxide, silicon(IV) oxide, chromium(III) oxide, manganese(IV) oxide, iron(III) oxide, iron(II,III) oxide, copper(II) oxide, and lead(II,IV) oxide.. Thermite can also weld the traversing and elevation mechanism of the weapon, making it impossible to aim properly. Doing so simply requires addressing the evidence listed above point by point, and showing in each case how an alternative hypothesis can explain that evidence better. The products emerge as liquids due to the high temperatures reached (up to 2500 °C with iron(III) oxide)—although the actual temperature reached depends on how quickly heat can escape to the surrounding environment.  Even when the thermite is hot enough to glow bright red, it doesn't ignite, as it must be at or near white-hot to initiate the reaction. In contrast with thermites, thermates burn with evolution of flame and gases. The burn rate tends to be very fast and the melting point of copper is relatively low so the reaction produces a significant amount of molten copper in a very short time. The reaction between potassium permanganate and glycerol or ethylene glycol is used as an alternative to the magnesium method. , The first commercial application of thermite was the welding of tram tracks in Essen in 1899. it can melt a steel cup where a low density thermite would fail. IN in the early 60’s I understand the … , The thermite reaction can take place accidentally in industrial locations where workers use abrasive grinding and cutting wheels with ferrous metals. Too low a reaction temperature (e.g., when producing silicon from sand) can be boosted with addition of a suitable oxidizer (e.g., sulfur in aluminium-sulfur-sand compositions); too high a temperature can be reduced by using a suitable coolant and/or slag flux. (TTCI R&D)", "Grenades and Pyrotechnics Signals. Thermate composition is a thermite one enriched with a salt-based oxidizer (usually nitrates, e.g., barium nitrate, or peroxides). The possible use of Thermite has been suggested however National Geographic claimed that thermite doesn't have the capability to burn through steel beams. A thermite reaction is a process in which the correct mixture of metallic fuels combine and ignite. When ignited, preheated thermite can burn almost instantaneously, releasing light and heat energy at a much higher rate than normal and causing burns and eye damage at what would normally be a reasonably safe distance. The reaction, also called the Goldschmidt process, is used for thermite welding, often used to join railway tracks. Most varieties are not explosive, but can create brief bursts of heat and high temperature in a small area. Under the right conditions Thermite can burn through many inches of steel. This effect is pushed to the extreme with nano-thermites. Bombsights could not be used at night, creating the need to use munitions that could destroy targets without the need for precision placement. Thermite may be used for repair by the welding in-place of thick steel sections such as locomotive axle-frames where the repair can take place without removing the part from its installed location. Note that there is no question that thermate can melt the -surface- of steel; however, steel structural members may be inches in thickness.  Incendiary bombs usually consisted of dozens of thin thermite-filled canisters (bomblets) ignited by a magnesium fuse.  Small amounts of water boil before reaching the reaction. Oxygen balanced mixture has theoretical maximum density of 5.109 g/cm3, adiabatic flame temperature 2843 K (phase transitions included) with the aluminium oxide being molten and copper in both liquid and gaseous form. It is possible to use match heads enveloped with aluminium foil and a sufficiently long visco fuse/electric match leading to the match heads. I had filmed enough thermite footage over the summer and this past week that I decided it should be put to use in a video. Cupric (Copper III) Oxide makes a huge and bright flash that can instantly melt steel rods. Too much flux, however, dilutes the reactants to the point of not being able to sustain combustion. Moreover, if the thermite mixture contains enough empty spaces with air and burns fast enough, the super-heated air also may cause the mixture to spray. Similarly, finely powdered thermite can be ignited by a flint spark lighter, as the sparks are burning metal (in this case, the highly reactive rare-earth metals lanthanum and cerium). Clay flower pots are a great option. For example, in December 2014, tin was US$19,829/metric ton, zinc was US$2,180/t and aluminium was US$1,910/t. Thermite hand grenades and charges are typically used by armed forces in both an anti-materiel role and in the partial destruction of equipment; the latter being common when time is not available for safer or more thorough methods. Thermate-TH3 is a mixture of thermite and pyrotechnic additives that have been found superior to standard thermite for incendiary purposes. How to make “hard”, solid thermite. Aluminium is common because of its high boiling point and low cost. The composition was very difficult to ignite. But that doesn't also prove that such a device was used that day. Both lead and zinc have very low melting points and thus can be added to thermite recipes to produce powerful explosions. Nothing about controlled demolition, nothing about as an explosive, nothing about its steel melting properties, nothing about using it in paint. Burns like a volcano — and yes the rod pulled in half. Thermite usage is hazardous due to the extremely high temperatures produced and the extreme difficulty in smothering a reaction once initiated. This kind of welding is being evaluated also for cable splicing on the US Navy fleet, for use in high-current systems, e.g., electric propulsion. This was a theory put forward by the former NASA scientist Addison Bain, and later tested in small scale by the scientific reality-TV show MythBusters with semi-inconclusive results (it was proven not to be the fault of the thermite reaction alone, but instead conjectured to be a combination of that and the burning of hydrogen gas that filled the body of the Hindenburg).
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